Many of the activities that DBAs do through the Oracle Enterprise Manager 12 Cloud Control GUI interface can also be accomplished via the Command Line Interface (EM CLI). Last month, we explored how to install and configure the EM CLI. This article will explore three categories of commands – auditing and user account management.
EM CLI Auditing Commands
Being able to produce an audit trail of activities done via EM is required in many organizations.
We use the EM CLI Audit commands to enable or disable auditing of any or all operations done via EM. The actual list of auditable operations is below, and it is exhaustive.
There are five commands that affect EM operation auditing. They are enable_audit, disable_audit, show_audit_settings, show_operations_list and update_audit_settings.
– displays the list (see above) of all operations that may be audited
Use the enable_audit command to enable all operations or just login/logout operations. There are two possible options for this command:
- this will enable auditing for all user operations
emcli enable_audit –level=basic
- this will enable auditing for login/logout and db_login/db_logout
Use the disable_audit command to turn off all auditing.
To see the current audit settings use the show_audit_settings command (which has the options of a detailed or summary output):
emcli show_audit_settings –view=”DETAIL|SUMMARY”
- displays the following information
- Audit Switch (enabled or disabled)
- Externalization Switch (enabled or disabled)
- File Prefix
- File Size
- Data Retention Period
In order to get specific audit settings, we use the update_audit_settings command. It has the following options:
-operations_to_enable=”name of operations|ALL”
(If auditing is disabled, this parameter is invalid, to list multiple operations separate the names with semi-colons).
-operations_to_disable=”name of operations|ALL”
(If auditing is disabled, this parameter is invalid; to list multiple operations separate the names with semi-colons).
(Writes the audit trail to an external file).
-directory=”directory object name”
(Your specified file name, default value is em_audit).
(Your specified size in bytes, default is 5000000).
(How long to store the audit records in EM, default is 365 days).
Let us imagine that we would like to turn on auditing for everything except a resync of the agents or repository. We have a directory object created for us called EM_AUDIT_DIR and the files should be prefixed with my_audit. Additionally we would like a size of 2500000 bytes, and we want to keep the data in EM for six months.
We would not be able to use the basic enable_audit command, so we would use the update_audit_settings command instead:
EM CLI User Management Commands
DBAs who like to create scripts to perform tasks such as creating and managing user accounts may find it useful to know the EM CLI commands that focus on user and privilege management. There are commands to manage users, roles, and privileges. The list of commands is:
The first of the role commands is used to create new roles via EM CLI.
-name=”name” (this is the only mandatory option)
-type=”EM_ROLE|EXTERNAL_ROLE” (default is EM_ROLE)
-description=”your description of the role”
roles – list of other roles to assign to this role
users – list of users to assign this role to
privilege – privilege to grant this role
separator – what to use to separate the role list, default is ;
subseparator – what to use to separate value pairs for the privilege option, default is ;
As an example, we want to create a role called my_view_role. It combines two other roles that were created earlier called role_a and role_b, it will be granted to the users Karen and Ron. It will allow for viewing two hosts (host_01 and host_02 and one job with the ID of 12345ABCDE678910.
The second command is used to delete roles and it is simply:
emcli delete_role –name=”role name”
The third command is used to modify an existing role. It is virtually identical to the create role command. Any options that you specify will replace the existing settings. Simply leave an option off if you do not wish to modify that particular setting for the role.
-description=”your description of the role”
To change “my_view_role” and add another existing role called role_c, simply modify the role option.
The create user command is used to create new EM Administrator user accounts.
-type – can be EM_USER (default), EXTERNAL_USER or DB_EXTERNAL_USER
-roles – which roles should be assigned to the user
-email – email address(es) for the user – separate with semi-colons
-privilege – explicit privileges to grant to the user
-separator/subseparator – character to separate roles/privileges – default is ;
-profile – database profile to assign to the user, default is DEFAULT
-expired – set to true to expire password right away, default is FALSE
-prevent_change_password – if true, user cannot change the password, default is FALSE
-department – of the administrator
-cost_center – of the administrator
-line_of_business – of the administrator
-contact – contact information of the administrator
-location – of the administrator
-input_file – allows the use of a file for any of the options
To create a user named Karen with a password of Oracle1, with the roles role_a and role_c, full privileges on host_01 an email address of firstname.lastname@example.org with an immediately expired password and a profile of JR_ADMIN, enter the following:
To delete an EM Administrator user account use delete_user. If a user is deleted, by default objects created by that administrator would also be deleted. Additionally any jobs would be stopped and deleted along with any blackouts that the user had set up. If there were any active blackouts, the user would not be able to be removed. There are three options for the delete user command:
-name – name of user to be deleted
-new_object_owner – name of user to become the owner of objects (instead of removing them)
-force – remove the administrator even if they are logged in
To delete the user Karen and reassign all objecs to Ron – issue the following:
To change an EM Administrator account – use the modify_user command. Like the modify_role command, we simply specify the new values for any of the options to replace the current value for that particular attribute.
For example, to change Karen’s profile from JR_ADMIN to SR_ADMIN:
These commands are used to grant privileges to existing users or roles, to grant existing roles to existing users or to revoke the privileges and roles if necessary.
To grant privileges to a user or role:
-name=(user or role names)
In order to grant Karen full privileges on host_04 and all targets that reside on host_04:
To grant roles to a user or another role:
-name=(user or role name to get the new role)
-roles=(roles to grant)
To grant a new role called my_new_role to my_existing_role and user Ron:
To revoke a privilege from a role or user:
-name=(user or role names)
To revoke full target on host_04 from Karen:
To revoke a role from another role or user:
-name=(user or role to revoke from)
-roles=(roles to revoke)
To revoke my_new_role from Ron:
Understanding the Supported Privileges
There is a command that will display the supported privilege options that can be used in the privilege attribute for the above commands.
-script=(same as format:script)
-type – which type of privilege to display, valid options are ALL, SYSTEM, TARGET and JOB
-noheader – prints a tabular output with no column headers
-format – determines which format to display the output in
-format=”name:pretty” – formats the output for screen display, but not for use in scripts
-format=”name:script” – sets the column separator is tabs and row separator to a newline
-format=”name:csv” – sets the column separator to a comma and the row separator to a newline
-format=column_separator:”string” – sets the comma separator to a character of your choosing
-format=row_separator.”string” – sets the row separator to a character of your choosing
Next month we will continue our exploration of the EM CLI commands with a look at the Credential Management commands. Until then...