This is part 6 of a series. If you have not read part 5, you can find it here.
There are many good articles available that cover data encryption and data security in general. I will not try to explain why you need to encrypt sensitive data within your database. If you don’t already have someone knocking on your door telling you to do this, listen carefully and you can hear them coming down the hall.
For years, many database designers have played the performance card and gotten away with storing plain-text data inside the database. They (we) have created elaborate security schemes around the database, but if someone could actually get access to the database itself, they were in.
SQL Server 2005 includes support for encrypting and decrypting data for storage using EncryptByCert. Let’s look at how to implement this in the SqlCredit database. We will use it to encrypt the credit card number and security code that were previously stored in plain text.
117 ASCII Characters? 58 UNICODE Characters?
Before we continue, we need to understand the limitations of EncryptByCert regarding string lengths. There is a great explanation here, which states the basic problem but does not address UNICODE. The critical quote:
“The length of plaintext data that can be encrypted … is the length of the key modulus minus eleven bytes.”
This means that for ASCII strings (char or varchar), the largest string that can be encrypted using EncryptByCert is 117 characters. For UNICODE strings (nchar or nvarchar), the largest string that can be encrypted using EncryptByCert is 58 characters. Attempting to encrypt longer strings returns NULL.
I built a simple script that illustrates this very clearly.
For the strings (actually bigints and smallints) we will encrypt in SqlCredit, this is not an issue, but it is very important to understand if you plan to use EncryptByCert in your application.
Why Not Use varbinary(MAX)?
Since EncryptByCert returns a “varbinary with a maximum size of 8,000 bytes”, the easiest thing to use for your datatype would be varbinary(MAX). The problem comes when you try to index that column. You will receive this error:
“Column 'CardNumber' in table 'dbo.Card' is of a type that is invalid for use as a key column in an index.”
Based on the results of EncryptByCertStringLength.sql, the proper size of the varbinary is 128. A column of that type works fine in an index.
Some Running Changes
I noticed that I had left the security code out of the Card table (as explained in Part 1 of the series), so I have added that. I also replaced the non-unique index on Card.CardNumber with a unique index on Card.CardNumber/Card.SecurityCode. These changes lay the ground for encrypting these entries. There were also small changes to the associated stored procedures and views.
New stored procedure: CardReadByCardNumberAndSecurityCode. Added to BuildSqlCredit.bat: CreateCert.sql.
Before using EncryptByCert, it is necessary to create a master encryption key and create a certificate. (See BackupKeys.sql for an example of backing up the “service master key” and the “database master key”.)
Once the keys are created, using EncryptByCert is fairly simple. Here is the Card table without encryption:
CREATE TABLE dbo.Card ( CardID int NOT NULL IDENTITY, CardNumber bigint NOT NULL, SecurityCode smallint NOT NULL, ...
and with encryption
CREATE TABLE dbo.Card ( CardID int NOT NULL IDENTITY, CardNumber varbinary(128) NOT NULL, SecurityCode varbinary(128) NOT NULL, ...
The INSERT procedure (CardCreate) without encryption:
... INSERT INTO dbo.Card ( CardNumber, SecurityCode, ... ) VALUES ( @CardNumber, @SecurityCode, ...
and with encryption
... INSERT INTO dbo.Card ( CardNumber, SecurityCode, ... ) VALUES ( EncryptByCert ( Cert_ID (N'SqlCreditCert'), CAST (@CardNumber AS varchar(20)) ), EncryptByCert ( Cert_ID (N'SqlCreditCert'), CAST (@SecurityCode AS varchar(6)) ), ...
The SELECT procedure (CardReadByID) without encryption:
SELECT CardID, CardNumber, SecurityCode, ...
and with encryption
SELECT CardID, CAST ( CAST ( DecryptByCert ( Cert_ID (N'SqlCreditCert'), CardNumber ) AS varchar(20) ) AS bigint ) AS CardNumber CAST ( CAST ( DecryptByCert ( Cert_ID (N'SqlCreditCert'), SecurityCode ) AS varchar(6) ) AS smallint ) AS securityCode, ...
I cannot overstate the importance of the fact that the inputs to CardCreate and the outputs from CardReadBy<inputs> have not changed. The unit tests passed without any changes because all of the encryption/decryption is encapsulated inside of the stored procedures and views. The calling code does not have to change in any way to accommodate the encryption. This means that encrypting data using EncryptByCert is a database refactoring as defined by Scott Ambler because it improves the database design (better security) “while retaining both its behavioral and information semantics.”
(Notes: I actually modified the read procedures to use CardView, so the decryption code is in only one place, but the code above would work. Also, I was not able to make the decryption work without doing a double-cast. If you have a better way, please share.)
Loss of Datatype Enforcement
We love having very specific datatypes for all the data in our databases. You can’t store a string in a column where the datatype is int. However, encryption works on strings, so you convert your data from an int to a string and store it in a varbinary column.
I can create a table with a varbinary(4000) column and store encrypted strings, integers, dates, whatever. When I call DecryptByCert, I have to tell it what datatype to convert the unencrypted data into.
This simple script illustrates the problem.
The most important lesson from this is in line with general database design best-practices: Don’t use a column for more than one purpose. Don’t create an EncryptedStuff column where you can store either an integer or a date depending on specifics of the application.
For Next Time
Now that CardNumber and SecurityCode are encrypted, how will performance be affected?
Also, I really don’t like passing actual numbers around for StatusCd. I will change that to use UDFs to translate between numbers and their corresponding status strings.
SQL Server 2005 Security - Part 3 Encryption at Database Journal
Cryptographic Functions (Transact-SQL) at SQL Server 2005 Books Online
Refactoring Databases, by Scott W. Ambler and Pramod J. Sadalage
Discuss this article in the SqlCredit – Developing a Complete SQL Server OLTP Database Project Forum.SqlCredit - Developing a Complete SQL Server OLTP Database Project
- SQL Server 2008's Change Data Capture - Tracking the Moving Parts
- Performance Testing - SQL Server 2008 versus SQL Server 2005
- Exploring SQL Server's Index INCLUDEs
- Exploring SQL 2005's Ranking Functions - NTILE() and ROW_NUMBER()
- SqlCredit - Part 19: Exploring SQL 2005's Ranking Functions - RANK() and DENSE_RANK()
- SqlCredit, Part 18: Exploring the Performance of SQL 2005's OUTPUT Clause
- SqlCredit - Part 17: Exploring SQL 2005's OUTPUT Clause
- SqlCredit - Part 16: The Cost of Bloat
- SqlCredit - Part 15: The Cost of Distribution
- SqlCredit - Part 14: The Cost of Translation
- SqlCredit - Part 13: More on Indexed Persisted Computed Columns
- SqlCredit - Part 12: Exploring Indexed Persisted Computed Columns
- SqlCredit - Part 11: Change Tracking Using History Records
- SqlCredit - Part 10: MAC Performance and Updating SqlCredit
- SqlCredit - Part 9: Message Authentication Codes
- SqlCredit Part 8: Comparing Encrypt/DecryptByCert and Encrypt/DecryptByKey
- SqlCredit Part 7: Performance Impact of EncryptByCert and DecryptByCert
- SqlCredit Part 6: Exploring EncryptByCert and DecryptByCert
- SqlCredit - Part 5: Adding Card, Vendor, and Purchase, Plus Much Refactoring
- SqlCredit - Part 4: Schema and Procedure Security
- SqlCredit - Part 3: Schema/Proc Updates and Automated Unit Testing
- SqlCredit - Part 2: Creating the Database, Tables, CRUD Procedures
- SqlCredit - Developing a Complete SQL Server OLTP Database Project