Definer and Invoker Rights for stored routines in Oracle

Monday Jan 27th 2003 by Staff

Learn how to share procedures between users without sharing tables.

by Amar Kumar Padhi

Definer rights

A routine stored in the database by default, is executed with the definer rights (owner of the routine), depending on the user who calls it. This is a good way of having the required code perform process logic in one place. It gives better control, preventing direct access to objects that belong to another user, which might result in security issues.

For example, table APPPARMST belongs to schema A. User A creates a procedure UPDATE_PAR allowing for updates of a table. User B is granted execute privileges on the procedure. Now user B cannot access the table as no privileges have been granted, but can call the procedure to do the required process logic for updating the table.

Invoker Rights

Invoker rights is a new model for resolving references to database elements in a PL/SQL program unit. From Oracle 8i onwards, we can decide if a program unit should run with the authority of the definer or of the invoker. This means that multiple schemas, accessing only those elements belonging to the invoker, can share the same piece of code.

For example, let's take the above case. The table, APPPARMST, is created in schema B also. Each of the schema will now own the same set of objects but different data, as they are being used for different purposes. Since the called procedure, UPDATE_PAR, is owned by User A, the ideal solution in Oracle 8 and earlier releases, was to compile it in schema B also, so that it will use the objects thereof.

With Oracle 8i, there is no need for this duplication of code. A single compiled program unit can be made to use schema A's objects when invoked by User A and schema B's objects when invoked by User B. This way, we have the option of creating a code repository in one place and sharing it with various production users. The owner of the routine must grant EXECUTE privilege to other users.

To enable code to run with Invoker rights, an AUTHID clause needs to be used before the IS or AS keyword in the routine header. The AUTHID clause tells Oracle whether the routine is to be run with the invoker rights (CURRENT_USER), or with the Owner rights (DEFINER). If you do not specify this clause, Oracle by default assumes it to be AUTHID DEFINER.


create or replace procedure update_par(pi_parcod  in     varchar2, 
                                       pi_val     in     varchar2, 
                                       pio_status in out varchar2) 
authid current_user is 
  pio_status = 'OK'; 

  update appparmst 
  set    parval = pi_val 
  where  parcod = pi_parcod 
  and    rownum = 1; 

  if sql%notfound then 
    pio_status = 'Error in resetting the parameter'; 
  end if; 

Restriction in using Invoker rights

1. When compiling a new routine, direct privileges are only considered to resolve any external references. Grants through roles are ignored. The same applies when executing a routine created with invoker rights.

2. AUTHID is specified in the header of a program unit. The same cannot be specified for individual programs or methods within a package or object type.

3. Definer rights will always be used to resolve any external references when compiling a new routine.

4. Maintain extra caution on privileges being assigned to a different user. If the wrong privileges are assigned, a routine with invoker rights may have a mind of its own! Such issues would be difficult to debug. So ensure that the grants are perfectly in place.

5. For an invoker rights routine referred in a view or a database trigger, the owner of these objects is always considered as the invoker, and not the user triggering it.


SQL> DOC The above Procedure is created in user A and user B refers it. 

SQL> conn a/a@oradata1 
SQL> grant execute on update_par to B; 

Grant succeeded. 

SQL>  declare 
  2    l_status varchar2(200); 
  3   begin 
  4    a.update_par('updated by', 'User ' || user, l_status); 
  5    commit; 
  6   end; 
  7  / 

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 

SQL> select * from a.appparmst; 

PARCOD               PARVAL 
-------------------- ---------------------------------------------------- 
updated by           User A 

SQL> conn b/b@oradata1 
SQL> declare 
  2   l_status varchar2(200); 
  3  begin 
  4   a.update_par('updated by', 'User ' || user, l_status); 
  5   commit; 
  6  end; 
  7  / 
ERROR at line 1 
ORA-00942 table or view does not exist 
ORA-06512 at "A.UPDATE_PAR", line 6 
ORA-06512 at line 4 

SQL> DOC the error occurred because table APPPARMST does not exist for user B. 
DOC> I create it for user B and then call update_par again 

  3   PARVAL   VARCHAR2(200)); 

Table created. 

SQL> insert into appparmst values('updated by', null); 

1 row created. 

SQL> commit; 

Commit complete. 

SQL> declare 
  2   l_status varchar2(200); 
  3  begin 
  4   a.update_par('updated by', 'User ' || user, l_status); 
  5   commit; 
  6  end; 
  7  / 

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. 

SQL> select * from b.appparmst; 

PARCOD               PARVAL 
-------------------- --------------------------------------- 
updated by           User B 

SQL> DOC example over. 

Invoker rights is a powerful option, to be used with caution. To reduce code maintenance, this option should be thought of in the design stage, based on the need to share code across schemas with a similar setup.

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