Doing Data Guard - Part 1

Wednesday Feb 9th 2005 by Steve Callan
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Oracle Data Guard is a very useful tool to help maintain high availability and to protect your data. It is not uncommon to see 'must have experience with RAC and Data Guard' in job postings. The purpose of this series is to give you a little push to get up and running with Data Guard.

Oracle Data Guard is a very useful tool to help maintain high availability and to protect your data. It is not uncommon to see "must have experience with RAC and Data Guard" in job postings on Monster and Dice. If you are not using Data Guard at work or do not work in an environment where it is used (a development shop versus a production environment), how do you get experience using it? This is one of those Catch-22 situations where it takes experience to get experience, and the unstated question is, "How do you get experience in the first place?"

The purpose of this series is to give you the little push you may have needed to get up and running with Data Guard. When viewed as a whole, it may seem like a lot is required, but really, it is very easy to accomplish. The first part of this series will cover the hardware and networking setup and provide a brief overview of what Data Guard offers. The second and third parts will cover the actual setup and use of the types of copies (i.e., standby databases), namely, physical and logical copies.

What is Data Guard?

To start off, what was Data Guard? Oracle8i introduced the Standby Database and the basic concept remains the same in Oracle9i, but the feature was renamed to Data Guard, and many new features were added. As a major tool or feature for use with an Oracle database, it warrants its own set of feature-specific documentation. The two guides are Data Guard Concepts and Administration and Data Guard Broker.

The concepts and admin guide provides a good explanation of the Data Guard environment. Third party Oracle database administration books generally cover Data Guard (or Standby Database from 8i days). A more in-depth book from Oracle Press by Matthew Hart and Scott Jesse (Oracle Database 10g High Availability with RAC, Flashback & Data Guard) serves as an excellent cookbook or "how to" guide for configuring a database to use Data Guard. Technically speaking, you are configuring a minimum of two databases, but "database" by itself refers to the primary database you are trying to protect.

I find it curious that in the more than 1300 pages of Oracle Database 10g The Complete Reference that Data Guard is never mentioned once. RAC and Flashback are covered, but why did Data Guard get the short shrift? Part of the title ("The Complete Reference") may sound familiar if you have purchased books from Osborne/McGraw-Hill and those books are a lot closer to being complete references. If you look closely at Oracle Press' information, you will see that it is a subsidiary of Osborne/McGraw-Hill. The complete reference is not, and the Hart/Jesse book fills that gap quite nicely.


The best description of Data Guard comes from the concepts and admin guide, and it is provided here for your reference.

Oracle Data Guard ensures high availability, data protection, and disaster recovery for enterprise data. Data Guard provides a comprehensive set of services that create, maintain, manage, and monitor one or more standby databases to enable production Oracle databases to survive disasters and data corruptions. Data Guard maintains these standby databases as transactionally consistent copies of the production database. Then, if the production database becomes unavailable because of a planned or an unplanned outage, Data Guard can switch any standby database to the production role, thus minimizing the downtime associated with the outage. Data Guard can be used with traditional backup, restoration, and cluster techniques to provide a high level of data protection and data availability.

In this case, a picture (from Oracle's documentation) helps clarify the Data Guard environment.

You have two choices as to the type of standby database: physical and logical. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, benefits and shortcomings. Whichever type you wind up using, one thing that is common to both is the mode in which the primary database operates - archivelog mode. A benefit (and requirement) of using Data Guard is that you will become better at using archive logs, so if this is a rusty area for you, you may want to read up on backup & recovery and user managed recovery.

Physical standbys offer:

  • An identical physical copy of the primary database
  • Disaster recovery and high availability
  • Data protection
  • Reduction in primary database workload
  • Performance

Logical standbys offer:

  • Simultaneous use for reporting, summations and queries
  • Efficient use of standby hardware resources
  • Reduction in primary database workload
  • Some limitations on the use of certain datatypes

Some general operational requirements include the following:

  • All databases must use the same edition of Oracle Enterprise Edition
  • Use of the same Oracle software release
  • Same type of operating system, but not necessarily the same version
  • Same hardware and OS architecture (32-bit to 32-bit, Sun to Sun, etc.)
  • User accounts on both databases must have sysdba privileges

Although you can operate a standby database on the same system as the primary, it rather defeats the purpose of having a physically remote standby available for disaster recovery. As a vehicle for learning, that may be acceptable, but for real life use, you are just creating extra work for yourself.

Building a home network

With a minor investment of money and effort, you can set up your very own Data Guard environment in the comfort of your own home. The minimum essential equipment you need consists of two computers using the same operating system version, a router, and some cable. If you have a second computer lying around, put it to use. It does not have to be tremendously powerful; in fact, all that is necessary is that it meets the minimum requirements to install Oracle. If you do not have a second computer, find a friend who wants to learn and practice Data Guard and is willing to relocate his computer to your house or office temporarily. Better yet, see if you can borrow one from work. Getting access to a second computer is the hardest part of getting some hands-on experience. If you cannot obtain a second computer, you can configure a standby on your primary database's server, but there are some extra configuration steps required.

To network the two computers, you will need a router. Again, this has to be only "good enough." For around 25 dollars, you can obtain a 4-port broadband router with 4x10/100Mbps switched LAN ports and a 1x10/100Mbps WAN port for a cable modem connection. If you want to go high tech, get a wireless router and install a wireless Ethernet adapter. I have a D-Link wireless router at home and I installed a wireless card on a second computer. Total cost was around $100, and it took around 30 minutes to put it all together, including the time to open the CPU and install the card.

On your main computer (a PC in this case), you access the router via http://192.168.0.1 and perform a few tasks for setup. One item you may want to set is WEP, Wired Equivalent Privacy. WEP is an 802.11 standard that protects wireless communication from eavesdropping. Overall, it is quite simple to create a home network.

Once the router and network card are installed, Windows may start the networking wizard. One way to confirm networking is working is to open your favorite Web browser and navigate to an external page. If you can surf the Web from both computers, that is a good sign the next test will succeed. This next step needs to be performed anyway, regardless if your network has an Internet connection.

On each computer, share out a folder, and then from each computer, use Explorer to open the remote shared folder. You can also go to My Network Places and discover the other computer on your network. From "Entire Network," you should be able to drill down to the computers in your network.

Finally, since this is all about Oracle in the first place, install the same version of Oracle on each computer and either create the seed database or make a small one of your own. For the examples in this series, I will be using Oracle 9.2.0.1 (no patches), which is freely available at Oracle Technology Network. From each computer's perspective, you should be able to ping and tnsping the remote computer. Once all of these tasks and tests are complete, you are ready to configure the primary and standby database for Data Guard.

In Closing

In Part Two, we will create a physical standby database and experiment with applying redo logs against the standby, fail the primary, and switch over to the standby. In Part Three, we will create a logical standby and perform a failover. At the end of this series, you should feel confident in your ability to configure and use each type of standby database and be able to discuss (or at least know where to find the information) the differences between the two types of standbys and know some of the general operational requirements.

» See All Articles by Columnist Steve Callan

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