MS Access for the Business Environment: "Upsize" MS Access Reports to MS Reporting Services

Tuesday Jul 6th 2004 by William Pearson

Upsize your MS Access reports to the new Reporting Services environment. Bill Pearson discusses the realities in a hands-on walk-through of the process.

About the Series ...

This article continues the series, MS Access for the Business Environment. The primary focus of this series is an examination of business uses for the MS Access relational database management system. The series is designed to provide guidance in the practical application of data and database concepts to meet specific needs in the business world. The majority of the procedures I demonstrate in the series will be undertaken within MS Access 2003, although the concepts that we explore in this article will apply to MS Access 2002, and beyond.

For more information on the series, as well as the hardware / software requirements to prepare for the tutorials we will undertake, please see the first article of our series, Create a Calculated Field with the Expression Builder. Along with MS Access, of which we have made repeated use in the previous articles of the series, additional application considerations apply for this article, because it introduces another Microsoft application, MSSQL Server 2000 Reporting Services ("Reporting Services").

For those joining the series at this point because of a desire to work with Reporting Services and its components from the perspective of converting / importing MS Access Reports to Reporting Services, it is assumed that, along with Reporting Services, MSSQL Server 2000, Visual Studio.NET and any other appropriate support applications are accessible to / installed on your PC, with the appropriate access rights to the associated environments to parallel the steps of the article. If this is the first time Reporting Services or any of these other components are being accessed on your machine, you may need to consult the Reporting Services installation instructions, ReadMe files, and the associated online documentation for installation and configuration instructions. In addition, my Reporting Services series at Database Journal gives substantial guidance in various aspects of Reporting Services setup that may be of assistance.


Many businesses that use MS Access databases eventually push to the limits the multi-user applications they have purchased or developed internally, and find the "upsize" path to MSSQL Server to be attractive. Common scenarios that have driven this sort of upgrade include the desire to avoid disconnecting data from Web servers for the "repair and compact" evolution that becomes familiar to those supporting heavily used MS Access databases. Other scenarios driving upgrades are the sizes that MS Access databases reach, as well as the need to incorporate features and efficiencies that only a larger RDBMS can provide.

While the objectives and rewards of moving the database components to MSSQL Server are relatively well known, up until now the upsizing path for MS Access reports would not have been so readily obvious. We could possibly "leave them where they are," as it were, in a local MS Access database linked, client-server fashion, to the new upsized database (with the performance considerations and feature stagnation that would accompany such an approach), rely upon third-party reporting tools, or perhaps seek other approaches. However, overall, no straightforward reporting upgrade solution offered itself to the upsizing user - that is, until the advent of MSSQL Server 2000 Reporting Services.

In recent weeks, clients and non-clients alike have contacted me for strategy discussions surrounding conversions of existing analysis and reporting solutions to the new Reporting Services application, which I have been working with since beta. Many readers of my Reporting Services series have contacted me to request information along these lines, as well. A great deal of interest has been specifically shown in the area of converting MS Access reports, with which we have worked at various times throughout this series. Most of these have been from practitioners considering an upsize to MSSQL Server of their MS Access applications / components, or from organizations that have already completed such an upsize and are coming to terms with the need to enhance the performance of existing reports - avoiding the added, typically excessive, cost of third-party solutions where possible. The appearance of Reporting Services as an MSSQL Server 2000 add-on not only answers the need for enhancing existing MS Access reports (while often allowing us to avoid a total rewrite), but offers us opportunities to inject OLAP components, supported by the power of MSAS, into our reporting structures, as well as myriad other capabilities that the reporting capabilities in MS Access were simply never intended to provide.

Reporting Services provides a platform from which we can manage the complete reporting life cycle--from a report's design, to its deployment in a managed-server environment, to delivery to the end user. Reporting Services allows us to avoid the time consuming and otherwise costly creation of dynamic web pages and other delivery mechanisms. Moreover, as anyone in a large organization who has priced any of the dominant, third-party enterprise reporting solutions can attest, Reporting Services offers an opportunity to shave a six-to-seven-figure line item off the analysis and reporting budget, because any organization with an MSSQL Server 2000 license can centrally develop and maintain the entire analysis and reporting function, as well as deliver reports to information consumers in a wide variety of formats. Information products can be easily delivered through flexible, scheduled ("push") methods or via consumer requests ("pull") scenarios.

I could go on about the powerful options within Reporting Services for quite some time, but that is really part of the purpose of my RS Series, and beyond the scope of this article. Suffice it to say that, after years as a BI and data architect, I consider myself an evangelist for this new paradigm in reporting. Reporting Services promises to commoditize business intelligence for the benefit of every business, large and small, making sophisticated analysis tools available to any organization licensing MSSQL Server 2000 and beyond.

In this article, we will examine the conversion capabilities built into Reporting Services, in anticipation of the need to upsize MS Access reports. We will then prepare a database from a commonly available sample for a hands-on practice example of the import process. Our examination of the conversion process for MS Access reports will include the following:

  • An introduction to Reporting Services, focusing upon the Report Designer development environment;
  • A discussion of some of the realities of conversion, including:
    • Ways that Reporting Services differs from MS Access
    • Features of MS Access that readily convert;
    • Features of MS Access that require at least some intervention as part of conversion.
  • Preparation of an MS Access database (with reports) upon which to base the practice exercise;
  • A hands-on, practice exercise that includes the simultaneous conversion of several MS Access reports to the Reporting Services environment;
  • Verification of the effectiveness of the conversion process via an examination of the newly converted reports.

A Brief Introduction to Reporting Services

Reporting Services is a comprehensive reporting solution that integrates numerous components within an elastic, web-based architecture. These components include:

  • The tool set necessary to create, manage, view and deliver reports throughout the organization;
  • Open application programming interfaces (APIs) for the integration of reports, or an overall business intelligence solution, in a wide range of diverse business environments;
  • A server-based, highly scalable engine for processing and hosting reports.

When we adopt the MSSQL Server 2000 / Reporting Services combination, regardless of the extent of the evolution of our BI efforts before, we avail ourselves of a highly integrated, powerful aggregation of BI components that includes:

  • The MSSQL Server RDBMS, within which we can house organizational data for analysis;
  • MSSQL Server Analysis Services, composed of a robust OLAP engine that provides a means of developing and creating cubes for highly effective, interactive analysis;
  • The Data Transformation Services tools with which we can perform flexible, yet powerful, extraction, transformation and loading ("ETL") of data between operational data stores and the BI warehouses and marts;
  • Data-mining capabilities for finding patterns and correlations in large amounts of data;
  • Other support and development tools that allow us to rapidly develop and deploy BI applications within our organizations.

Although its own central reporting database is housed within MSSQL Server, Reporting Services can easily access data from a wide range of data sources via ODBC and OLE DE. Reporting Services was designed with seamless integration in mind, and it will become known as a universal solution among a diverse range of environments. While Reporting Services also integrates with a wide variety of report creation tools and environments, it contains everything administrators and authors need to create and deliver reports without the requirement to write the code involved. The development environment is contained within a graphical tool called Report Designer, which works inside the project framework of the feature-rich Visual Studio .NET development environment. Illustration 1 depicts a report that is under development in the Report Designer.

Illustration 1: A Report Under Construction in Report Designer

Report Designer plays an important role in the upsizing of MS Access reports into Reporting Services. We use Report Designer to import MS Access reports, either from an MS Access database (.mdb) or MS Access project (.adp) file. Each imported report is converted to Report Definition Language ("RDL") by the Report Designer. RDL is an XML-based standard for report definition, developed by Microsoft and several industry partners.

All reports created in Reporting Services are defined in the RDL format, which generates XML in a way that is transparent to the report author. The RDL standard is being adopted rapidly by ISV's from the perspective of support, so upsizing reports from MS Access, just like writing them "from scratch" in the Report Designer (or a custom authoring tool, if appropriate) only means more integration and enhanced usability of our information products.

We will be examining the import / conversion process in our practice exercise later. Let's take a look at some of the realities of conversion that we will need to understand before undertaking the conversion of our MS Access reports to Reporting Services.

The Realities of Conversion

The Basics

As we said, we can import reports from an .mdb or .adp file. In either case, the full set of reports associated with the file will be imported, and converted to .rdl files. In our practice example, we will import a full set of reports from a copy of the sample Northwind database. Other ways to manage this might be to create a "halfway house" .mdb, through which we can pass the reports at a controlled pace. We can also import the entire set of reports into a surrogate report project that we create beforehand in Report Designer, then, once the importation / conversion to .rdl files has occurred for the full set, open the individual reports in another report project, for a degree of insulation or staging, if that is useful for some reason. In any case, the original reports, and the MS Access database that houses them, are safe from corruption or otherwise disrupted utility.

Keep in mind that Access 2002 and above are supported as import targets of Reporting Services. Access 2002 or later is the only native import option, with regard to having a menu item reserved for that purpose, but the import and conversion of other popular report formats will soon become common options. I have already worked with multiple organizations that are in the process of creating such capabilities for Crystal Reports (several parallel ventures are underway in this arena, apparently), as well as for specific products of Cognos, BO and other "Big Sister" applications. Utilities of this sort will become commonplace as organizations all over the planet begin to see the huge savings involved in making the switch - and especially see others doing so around them. Once this train gets rolling ... well, we all know the metaphor.

In addition to being housed within an Access 2002 or later database, Reporting Services will require that the data sources associated with any reports designated for import must be available for the conversions to be successful. Reporting Services, as we shall see, actually converts the data source to a Reporting Services source that is active as soon as the report is converted and available.

Some MS Access Components are Not Supported

As we might expect, some modules, controls and other components found in import-targeted MS Access reports are not compatible with Reporting Services. The resulting build errors are presented in the Task List of the Design Environment (normally the lower window), where we can review what was culled out of a given report to ascertain whether its rejection was crippling to the report in its new incarnation in Reporting Services. Because the two reporting environments are significantly different, Reporting Services may modify some of the features of the imported reports, or may reject the components entirely.

Supported features are detailed in the Reporting Services Books Online. In addition, an overview is provided that treats the manner in which MS Access features and components are converted to RDL. The documentation explains, in many cases, what the action taken by Reporting Services can be expected to be, when it encounters an unacceptable item, and whether a warning or error is likely in the Task List. The components that are discussed include:

  • Data Sources
  • Report Modules
  • Report Controls
  • Report Properties
  • Grouping Properties
  • Expressions
  • Functions, including
    • Array
    • Conversion
    • Database
    • Date/Time
    • DDE/OLE
    • Domain Aggregate
    • Error Handling
    • Financial
    • Interaction
    • Inspection
    • Math
    • Message
    • Program Flow
    • SQL Aggregate
    • Text
  • Constants
  • Parameters
  • Object Names
  • Rectangles and Containment
  • Bitmaps

Other considerations are discussed here and elsewhere in the Books Online, as well, including the fact that conditional formatting is not automatically converted, that the report properties description field in MS Access is not converted, and so forth. This section of the Books Online is a "must read" for any practitioner who seeks to prepare for the sometimes tricky process of importing his or her organization's reports into Reporting Services. (For that matter, as of this writing the initial offerings on the book market for SQL Server Reporting Services is, in my opinion, so poor that the Books Online - which they essentially recast on paper - is still the best source of information that exists in a single document. In this case, I feel that the independent reviews we see on the major online booksellers are mostly quite accurate.)

Despite the differences in the two applications, and the features that may exist in our MS Access reports that will not carry over to identical functionality in Reporting Services, we can still often obtain efficiencies by using the import feature to upsize our reports. This is particularly true when our reports are not heavily endowed with the features or components that do not readily translate, or if the number of non-convertible items is minimal. If we have resources on hand that make the "import and modify" process more efficient than fresh rewrites, then the import capability obviously still offers a boost in the upsizing effort. It is, however, important to consider that the reports that we translate via this means may still warrant examination by knowledgeable practitioners to determine if enhancements or additions may be available in the far more powerful Reporting Services environment, and if the upsizing process might present an opportunity to make our reports more useful and performance oriented, as well as more easily deployed, delivered, and so forth via the new Reporting Services paradigm.

Let's begin our practice exercise at this point, preparing a database with reports to convert, and then getting hands-on exposure to the process in general. This will provide some insight into the decision to perform this on a larger scale later in our respective organizations.

Practice Exercise: Convert an MS Access Report to Reporting Services


As we mentioned earlier, we will create a database containing reports to illustrate the import process. This will involve copying the Northwind sample .mdb file that potentially accompanies every installation of MS Access 2002. If the sample database is not on your hard drive, whether because you chose not to include it in the MS Access installation or because it was removed later, either obtain it from the CD or initialize MS Access, then go to Help --> Sample Databases, as shown in Illustration 2, and select Northwind Sample Database from the cascading menu.

Click for larger image

Illustration 2: Recreating the Northwind.mdb Sample

If Northwind.mdb is not installed, you will be given an opportunity to re-create it. If you take this route, close MS Access once the .mdb is created, remembering where it was placed. By default, it is typically installed in a location with a path (in an OFFICE10 or OFFICE11 folder) similar to the following:

[DRIVE]: \Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\SAMPLES

Once we have located the Northwind.mdb on our hard drives, we will begin preparation for our practice exercise by taking the following steps.

1.  Right-click the Start button on the PC, and select Explore, as depicted in Illustration 3.

Illustration 3: Open Windows Explorer

2.  Navigate to the Northwind.mdb located above.

3.  Right-click the Northwind.mdb file.

4.  Select Copy from the context menu that appears, as shown in Illustration 4.

Illustration 4: Select Copy from the Context Menu

5.  Navigate to a location in which to store the copy for purposes of keeping it separate from the original database, as well as locating it easily through the steps of the exercise.

6.  Right-click inside the folder where you wish to store the copy.

7.  Select Paste from the context menu that appears, as shown in Illustration 5.

Illustration 5: Paste the Copy of the Northwind.mdb Database in the New Location

The copy of Northwind.mdb appears in its new location as depicted in Illustration 6.

Illustration 6: The Northwind.mdb Database Copy Appears

8.  Right-click Northwind.mdb once again.

9.  Select Rename from the context menu that appears, as shown in Illustration 7.

Illustration 7: Select Rename ...

10.  Type OrgReports.mdb as the new name for the database, as depicted in Illustration 8.

Illustration 8: Renaming the Northwind Database

11.  Click anywhere outside the name to accept the changes.

Let's take a quick look at our new "report inventory," to get a feel for what we are about to convert.

12.  Double-click the OrgReports.mdb file.

MS Access opens. If you are working with MS Access 2003, as I am, you may be greeted by the security warning screens. Simply okay the process of opening the database by clicking Open. (See the Online Help if there are any issues here). If this is the first time using MS Access, you may also see an initial dialog displayed, etc. If so, close it; our objective is simply to open the database to examine reports.

13.  Close the Northwind splash screen, which appears on launch of the database, by clicking OK.

The main switchboard appears as shown in Illustration 9.

Illustration 9: Inside Access, Northwind Main Switchboard

14.  Click the Display Database Window button, to close the main switchboard.

We arrive at the Database Window.

15.  Click the Reports link in the Objects pane, shown circled in Illustration 10.

Illustration 10: The Reports Link in the Objects Pane

We arrive at the Reports Window, where we can see the various reports that exist in the database we have copied for our practice example. The reports appear as depicted in Illustration 11.

Illustration 11: The Database Reports Collection

16.  Open and review individual reports as desired to get an idea of the various characteristics and components of each.

In exploring the reports contained in the database, we notice some of the reports have fully convertible features, while others contain components that are not supported / fully supported in Reporting Services. We will be notified of unsupported features as part of our upsizing process in the next section.


Let's assume, for purposes of our practice exercise, that we are practitioners in today's harried business environment, and are faced with providing management with options for making our reports "better, stronger, and faster," preferably, of course, at minimal or no cost. (The budget has been impacted negatively this year because management has engaged high-priced consultants to provide options for lowering overall IT costs by off shoring).

We are currently upsizing our application databases to MSSQL Server 2000, and decide to "test upsize" the reports to the Reporting Services platform, as well. We are well aware that the import feature in Reporting Services may not result in a perfect duplication of all reports, complete with existing functionality. The way we see it, anything not automatically converted is probably a good case for examination for enhancement anyway. We can easily adapt the reports to function within the context of Reporting Services, delivering rapidly upgraded information products with a little process improvement as a side dish.

We will convert a complete set of cloned reports, and then investigate any incompatibilities - managing "by exception" any rework that is appropriate, and creating a list of the tasks involved as an automatic byproduct of the process. Sound too good to be true? Let's do it!

First, we will launch Reporting Services' Report Designer, found in Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003.

1.  Click Start.

2.  Navigate to the Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 in the Programs group, as appropriate. The equivalent on my PC appears as shown in Illustration 12.

Illustration 12: Navigate to the IDE in Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 ...

Once we enter the IDE, we will need to create a project to house the new imports. Beginning from the Start page, Projects tab, we will take the following steps:

3.  Select File --> New from the main menu.

4.  Click Project from the cascading menu, as shown in Illustration 13.

Illustration 13: Creating a New Project

The New Project dialog appears. We note the appearance of Business Intelligence Projects as an option in the Project Types tree, as shown in Illustration 14, indicating an installation of Reporting Services (the folder was added by the installation of Reporting Services, as it established the Report Designer in Visual Studio .NET).

Illustration 14: The New Projects Dialog, with Business Intelligence Projects as a Project Type

5.  Click Business Intelligence Projects in the Project Types list, if necessary.

6.  Click Report Project in the Templates list.

7.  Navigate to a location in which to place the Report Project files.

8.  Type the following into the Name box, leaving other settings at default:


The New Project dialog appears, with our additions, as shown in Illustration 15.

Illustration 15: The Completed New Projects Dialog

9.  Click OK.

Our new project appears in the Solution Explorer (upper right corner of the Visual Studio .NET interface), as we see in Illustration 16.

Illustration 16: The New Project Appears in the Solution Explorer

We have now created a Report Project, and are ready to import the reports in the MS Access database that we have prepared, converting each to a Reporting Services .rdl file in the process.

10.  Right-click the Reports folder in Solutions Explorer. The Reports folder, together with the Shared Data Sources folder, was automatically put in place when we created the new project in our last steps.

11.  Select Import Reports from the context menu that appears.

12.  Click Microsoft Access ... from the cascading menu, as shown in Illustration 17.

Illustration 17: Select Import Reports ---> Microsoft Access

The Open dialog appears.

13.  Navigate to the location where you placed the OrgReports.mdb database file we prepared for this exercise.

The Open dialog appears, with OrgReports.mdb, as depicted in Illustration 18.

Illustration 18: The Open Dialog, Showing OrgReports.mdb

14.  Select OrgReports.mdb within the dialog.

15.  Click the Open button at the bottom of the Open dialog.

An MS Access window opens (MS Access 2003 users will likely see the warning dialog appear - if so, simply click Open), and the reports begin processing immediately. We see the reports appear in the Reports folder of the Solution Explorer, as shown in Illustration 19.

Illustration 19: The Imported MS Access Reports in the Reports Folder

NOTE: As we can see, the new reports are placed into the folder where we request their import via right-click. The new reports become .rdl files, with no obvious means of distinguishing them from reports that may already exist in our Reports folder, if we are importing them into an existing Project. This is one reason to set up an "intermediate" Project to contain the reports, as we have done in this article, at least until they can be tested, etc., and are ready for "admittance to the general population" of reports. (I once called this folder "Ellis Island," for obvious reasons ...).

Even if we are using an existing Project, it is often a good idea to create a folder within the reports folder, named in a way that allows identification of the newly converted files, so as to prevent confusion if names are similar to those in development in an existing project, etc. Once cleared of exceptions detailed in the Task List and otherwise tested, and perhaps renamed to fit our Reporting Services naming conventions, they can be easily moved to another project, etc., before publication / deployment in the routine manner.

Our reports are now in place and ready to be verified for correct operation.


One of my favorite things about the Reporting Services design environment, Report Designer, is that it allows us to see all the parts involved in report creation, placed in a central, integrated place. We can see data source information, dataset field composition, and other items in a way that makes use of these objects a highly visual, user-friendly experience. Coding knowledge is certainly not wasted, in any way, but report developers need not be programmers to begin authoring reports immediately. The more time we can invest in learning the package, obviously, the better off we'll be, but the tools that Reporting Services provides us typically give us numerous effective options for any given step in the report creation process.

One of the features I find extremely useful in the present scenario, the conversion (and, more significantly, the enhancement) of MS Access reports, is the existence of the Task List that is generated as part of the conversion of the files to .rdl. In the lower half of the design environment, the Output section logs messages based upon the Build process that occurs to convert the reports, as it does for any report build (it appears by default, although it can be hidden).

The Task List tab, located to the left of the Output tab, allows us access to the Task List, which consists of "pending items," as it were, that we can use to manage report components that need to be upgraded manually, or otherwise modified to make the MS Access features / characteristics that were supported in MS Access work in Reporting Services. The Task List even has check boxes, where we can tick off items as we handle them. Selecting Edit --> Select All enables us to copy this useful list to an MS Excel or MS Word document, if that is useful, and we can sort and otherwise manipulate the list items with a simple right-click within the Task List itself.

A partial illustration of the Task List from the conversion we undertook in the last section appears in Illustration 20.

Illustration 20: The Task List Generated from Our MS Access Reports Conversions

Running a quick conversion of a set of reports, just as we have done above, can thus enable us to create a list of items to be examined, and modified (or perhaps even eliminated), in the original MS Access database before performing a "for real" conversion later. Armed with a list of "problem reports," we might want to upsize the reports with minimal or no issues, and schedule the reports that we know will not upsize so easily for complete rebuilding within Reporting Services, where the features that do not readily convert can probably be better designed anyway. The options are numerous, and I am confident that the Task List will be as useful to many, as it has been for me.

Any successful conversion, particularly when managed via an "automatic upgrade" process, such as the one we have witnessed in the conversion of MS Access Reports to their Reporting Service counterparts, requires a degree of professional skepticism. We certainly want to review our reports in the new formats, and ascertain that, indeed, the exceptions noted in the conversion process, and presented in the Task List, are complete and accurate. The best way to do this, of course, will be to open the reports individually and perform any interaction supported within the report, such as parameterization, in real-world scenarios, to get a feel that all is functioning properly.

I would typically open a new report and run it against data (say, for a closed month), using the original database / copy of the database as a data source for the new report. I would then compare the results presented in the new report to those given by its unconverted counterpart (conveniently still in place in the MS Access database, whose reports we targeted for conversion). If numbers agree in this and similar tests, and if functionality has been tested and found to be complete and effective, the report is ready to be placed into a test environment, just as we would do with a report that we authored from scratch within Reporting Services.

We can examine our reports by taking the following steps within our practice environment:

1.  Right-click the Summary of Sales by Year report, one of the reports that appears to have converted directly, in the Reports folder for the project in Solution Explorer.

2.  Select Open from the context menu, as shown in Illustration 21.

Illustration 21: Opening the Summary by Sales Year Report

We can gather that this report converted seamlessly, because no error or warning messages appear in the Task List, only that the report was successfully imported. The Layout Tab for the report appears as depicted in Illustration 22.

Illustration 22: The Layout Tab for the Summary of Sales by Year Report (Compacted)

3.  Click the Preview tab to see the report as it appears with data.

The Summary of Sales by Year report appears, as partially shown in Illustration 23.

Illustration 23: The Summary of Sales by Year Report Design Environment - Layout Tab (Partial View)

And so we see, from within Report Designer, that the report has largely converted without significant exception. We note that the data source is intact for the imported report, as well; saving us time and effort in moving into the testing phases we discussed earlier with our MS Access reports. Minor cosmetic modifications might certainly be appropriate, but, again, the odds are that reports can be enhanced beyond the capabilities of MS Access even with regard to simple appearances.

4.  Close the report, as desired, by selecting File --> Close.

5.  Review the other converted reports to get a feel for the results in each case.

6.  Select File --> Exit when comfortable with the state of the reports.

We are prompted to save changes to the Project and the Solution files as we leave the development environment, as depicted in Illustration 24.

Illustration 24: The Summary of Sales by Year Report Design Environment - Layout Tab (Partial View)

7.  Click Yes to close Visual Studio .NET.

Conclusion ...

In this article, we examined the conversion capabilities built into Reporting Services for upsizing MS Access reports. We began by introducing Reporting Services, focusing upon its Report Designer development environment, and then discussed many of the realities of conversion. We pointed out differences between MS Access and Reporting Services, as well as enumerating many features and components that readily convert, and many that require at least some intervention to remain useful.

Next, we began a hands-on exercise with the preparation of a sample MS Access database for the import process. We then performed the conversion of several MS Access reports to Reporting Services. Finally, we discussed the need for verification of the effectiveness of the conversion process via an examination of the newly imported reports, as well as subsequent steps that might be taken to transition the converted reports to the test environment and beyond.

» See All Articles by Columnist William E. Pearson, III

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